Virus Induced Diabetes And The Immune System

“The result is that these immune cells are much less responsive to normal signaling by IL-10,” says Raimondi. In obese patients also suffering from T2DM, an even lower percentage of Treg cells was revealed [46]. The development of a personalized immunotherapy by identifying the metabolic immune checkpoint is highly desirable.

We work so hard to keep things managed that it becomes more struggle with an illness. When it comes to your cooking and your health, there are a host of foods that can do the double-duty for you. Treg cells are able to decrease not only macrophage number, TNF-α and inflammation in VAT, but also pancreatic islet cell hyperplasia, liver fat accumulation, blood glucose, liver enzymes, IR and kidney damage (113, 114). Critical to the research was the mass spectral analysis (LCMSMS) and the in vitro, petri dish experiments at the lab bench. Do antibiotics interact with any of my other medications? Patients with uncontrolled diabetes had the lowest levels of NKG2D expression, and there is a significant inverse correlation between NKG2D-expressing NK cells of diabetic patients and their HbA1c levels. Not all studies have supported the expected conclusion that Th1 and Th17 cells would promote insulin resistance and macrophage infiltration, while Th2 and Tregs cells would counter inflammation, hence disease.

In 2020, Seyfert-Margolis et al. However, in the last few years a new alternative has started gaining attention. The foods we eat can boost our immune system and may help people with diabetes control their blood sugar levels. 5 spices to boost your immune system, herbs that have been shown to directly affect interferon include ginseng root, garlic bulb, mistletoe, ashwaghanda root, noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia) and numerous herbal formulas (Matsumoto and Yamada, 2020, Lamm and Riggs, 2020 , Mori K et al. Our body will react by releasing these stress hormones, so it is best to deal with our stress and learn healthy coping mechanisms early on. Using these identifying features they produce antibodies that can alert the body to the same threat in the future. Hamad’s team believes its findings could offer a biomarker that helps screen individuals at risk for developing Type 1 diabetes. Staying away from processed foods and eating more whole grains is important.

These agents have shown a significant beneficial effect on HbA1c, IR, and β cell secretory function (144–146). The adaptive and innate features of the immune system can then identify the microbe for destruction now and into the future. For now, control of blood sugar through diet and medicine can hold the dicarbonyl-beta defensins dynamic at bay. It is a building process which is why it is important to exercise every day. Overall, studies in both mice and humans identify T-cell subset imbalances that either promote or associate, respectively, with insulin resistance. Elderberry syrup benefits for cold and flu: what the science says. As a leader in diabetes treatments, Novo Nordisk is researching technology with potential to cure type 1 diabetes, eliminating insulin injections and long-term complications. These proinflammatory macrophages also secrete chemokines to recruit the next wave of incoming monocytes. (672) from the UK, aged between 25 and 65 years, the percentage of subjects with ICA and/or GADA autoantibodies was found to be 12% overall and to be significantly higher in younger patients (22).

Of note, the results were replicated with IgGs derived from patients with T2D and transferred to IgG-deficient mice, suggesting the relevance of this mechanism also for human diabetes (74).

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T2D individuals. In isolated Sprague-Dawley rat islets cultured at different glucose concentrations, GAD expression was found to be glucose dependent and to correlate with increased functional state of the β cell (137). Pollack RM, Donath MY, LeRoith D, Leibowitz G. It increases our stress responses when we don’t get enough sleep. Beside self-reactive T cells, obesity and T2D are associated with an imbalance in T cell sub-population ratio.

Nonetheless, the incidence of a wide range of infective diseases is markedly increased in the diabetic population (88, 89). Irvine WJ, McCallum CJ, Gray RS, Duncan LJ. Primary immunodeficiency, my kids love this and it has much lower sugar than the vanilla yogurt you buy in stores. After a while you will understand what a true portion is. The harmful molecules -- dicarbonyls -- are breakdown products of glucose that interfere with infection-controlling antimicrobial peptides known as beta-defensins. Interleukin-17 iNKT: Together, the two cells identify and attack entities that present a threat, such as invading bacteria, viruses, and other agents. While the involvement of AT-resident macrophages and innate immunity has been thoroughly analyzed (65, 66), fewer studies have focused on the role played by the adaptive immune B and T lymphocytes and their released factors in obesity-associated inflammation and T2D triggering events. It is also possible that the post-transcriptional mechanisms common to many cytokine mRNAs may yield more moderate levels of T-cell IL-17 in insulin sensitive vs.

Try to eat whole grains like quinoa, wild rice, and oats and add in a lot more veggie based carbs. Fasting blood glucose GTT: Along with the natural antibiotic, take a wholefood Vitamin C supplement (e. )The pancreas then produces little or no insulin. Tulsi tea, or holy basil herb, has been used for thousands of years to support immune health and heart health. GSH levels were found to be decreased in red blood cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells isolated from patients with active pulmonary TB. Fasting for 72 hours can reboot the entire immune system, also, they no longer required insulin treatment after 2 months of this fasting pattern. These “dual expresser” (DE) cells were significantly more abundant in type 1 diabetes patients than in controls, explains Abdel Hamad, an immunologist at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine and the senior author of the study.


They include tiredness, muscle weakness, appetite loss, or weight loss. “These cells, to my knowledge, have not been described by anybody in any other setting,” he notes. Interestingly, two studies reported a protective role for both CD5+ B-1a and CD5− B-1b cells [different at both phenotypic and development level (78)] in HFD-induced metabolic alterations in mouse models. Research has also shown that autoimmunity is caused by an imbalance between "soldier" immune cells that attack unwanted invaders and regulatory immune cells, T regs, which prevent the soldiers from destroying the body's own tissues. Skip the white bread, white noodles and white rice. Notably, Turner et al.

Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease, whereby the body’s immune system reacts against its own cells, in this case the insulin producing cells in the pancreas, and begins to kill these cells. Doctors then typically prescribe oral medications that work in different ways to increase your body’s ability to use insulin, to make less glucose, and to perform other actions. It remains worth keeping to pursue a better definition of autoimmunity in T2D because a deeper knowledge of its immunogenic basis is not only necessary to better discriminate patient characteristics and select proper treatment approach, but, also importantly, to fully understand the very pathological mechanism of disease, thus possibly developing new strategies to counteract T2D development and progression. Koethe said the findings are relevant for patients with HIV disease who also have elevated levels of CD8+ cells in fat and are at high risk of developing diabetes. Raw honey, especially Manuka honey has been shown in studies to be as effective as commercial topical antibiotics but, unlike pharmaceutical antibiotics, raw honey is essentially immune to resistance because it fights bacteria in several different ways. If your sleep patterns change, or you’re concerned about your sleep patterns, see your doctor.

  • Elevated IL-17 production despite structurally similar Th17 promoter structures, combined with a correlation between Th17 cells and body mass index in obese/T2D but not in obese/insulin-sensitive subjects, bring up the intriguing possibility that loss of specific layers of mRNA regulation in the immune system promotes the transition from insulin sensitive to insulin resistant.
  • To date, however, the majority of approaches to combat T1D have involved single agents that primarily targeted the immune system.
  • ” It might have been better to study patients close to diagnosis, or in children, he suggests.
  • Some people with diabetes may be able to postpone insulin injections with healthy lifestyle changes and medications.
  • Plant based foods with a good source of EFA’s include spinach, avocado, broccoli, cauliflower, beans, nuts and seeds.

Immune System And Type 2 Diabetes

Optimal type of supplement is a liquid drop which get absorbed through the mouth and works better than pills. What is diabetes and what are the different types? If the raw optical densities of my samples are just in the middle of calibration curve (see attached illustration - situation A), the curve is quite steep here, and low variation of absorbance reflects low variation of concentrations, and reported intra-assay CV is satisfactory. Their onset is not as sudden as in type 1 diabetes. Lean, but not obese, fat is enriched for a unique population of regulatory T cells that affect metabolic parameters. Weak immune system: symptoms and what to do, this layer of anucleated keratinocytes is composed of highly cross-linked proteinaceous cellular envelopes with extracellular lipid lamellae consisting of ceramides, free fatty acids, and cholesterol. Immunotherapy is mostly known as a modern treatment for allergies, where a person is exposed to a small amount of what they are allergic to in order to train the immune system to tolerate it. For internal use, check with a naturopath or biochemist to ensure that it's safe and that it's really colloidal silver! We don’t know,” says Voltarelli.

Recent research suggests that type 2 diabetes may actually be an autoimmune disease. Amongst the lymphocyte cells are B cells and T cells which perform different tasks. Some stress in your life is inevitable.

Patients with T2D had increased proportions of inflammatory cells, including M1 macrophages, with positive correlations to BMI. It's not only type 1 diabetes that could at last have a detailed explanation. This gene encodes a regulator of glycolysis and insulin signaling and thus it had been previously reported as a plausible biological candidate in T2D diabetes (39). A new form of treatment for type 1 diabetes that's based on the immune system appears safe for patients in an early trial. This work was supported by the American Diabetes Association (1-10-JF-43), The Starzl Transplantation Institute, the Baltimore Diabetes Research Center, the American Association of Immunologists and JDRF (2-SRA-2020-304-S-B).


(GGP 17086 to GM). Ethnicity may count, as GADA positivity in T2D patients range from 3. I am personally very passionate about health and wellness and would like to see new and better options for treating diabetes.

The immune response usually begins when a surveillance cell called an antigen-presenting cell (APC) spots an invader and captures its signature. The MHC class I and class II molecules play a major role in defining each person’s specific immune response. In the event of another attack by the same foreign organism, the adaptive immune system is able to provide a more efficient response. Hawa MI, Kolb H, Schloot N, Beyan H, Paschou SA, Buzzetti R, et al. There have not been many studies related relationships of immune system and diabetes. LADA patients range from showing clear signs of β cell dysfunction (insulin deficiency and low levels of C-peptide) associated with strong markers of autoimmunity (presence of islet-cell autoantibodies) to patients showing a higher grade of insulin resistance and other pathological components resembling T2D condition [metabolic syndrome and systemic low-grade inflammation (LGI)].

Anaerobic organisms may be present as well due to decreased blood and oxygen perfusion throughout the blood vessels for the synthesis of leukocytes. Hyperthyroidism can cause nervousness, irritability, increased sweating, intolerance to heat, tiredness, sleep problems, a fast heartbeat, irregular menstrual periods in girls, and muscle weakness. This includes proper toilet hygiene, prompt urination after sexual intercourse, regular emptying of the bladder, and ample fluid intake. Hyperglycemia also adversely affects the macrophage system.

Check Out Each Of Our Sections To Learn More About Diabetes.

It also is responsible for certain cancers and respiratory diseases. Other conventional immune suppressing drugs such as diacerein, chloroquine, and TLR inhibitors have been shown to affect some markers of glucose metabolism (139, 140). Immature T cells with TCRs that match the antigen respond to the APC summons by converting into either killer or helper T cells. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a multifactorial and multilayer disease, characterized by an altered metabolism of glucose, fat and proteins. Inflammation is thought to initiate in the visceral adipose tissue when neutrophils, followed closely by B cells, then T cells, infiltrate the expanding adipose tissue in response to HFD in mice.

  • A newly discovered 'hybrid' white cell could finally explain this, and possibly even help us understand the origins of a variety of other auto-immune disorders.
  • Take a walk down by a river or lake, take a mountain hike, or bike along the many bike paths cropping up all over to increase the general populace’s exercise levels.
  • Recently, there have been several studies focusing on immune effect of hypoglycemic drugs or the improvement of glucose and lipid metabolism using immune system modulators.


Under situations of normal glycemia, bacteria can activate the complement cascade. The immune system deals with these threats in a number of different ways, from engulfing bacteria to killing parasites, tumours and cells infected with viruses. An autoimmune disease results when the body’s system for fighting infection—the immune system—turns against a part of the body. Reported alterations in T2D patients could represent either a cause or a consequence of the disease. Many brands of Manuka Honey carry a number but not the UMF trademark. All of these areas of research are so critical to helping people with diabetes. The first to benefit would be people recently diagnosed with the disease.

One patient from the group had a relapse and needed to take insulin for one year, before becoming insulin-independent again – and has remained this way for 5 months. Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. CTLs initiate killing by various mechanisms including the production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IFN-g, which act synergistically with IL-1β produced by macrophages in targeting the β-cells; they also directly kill β-cells through the secretion of perforin or by apoptosis by the activation of the Fas-Fas-L pathway. The basic mechanism of the disease is well characterized:

T cells grow up in the thymus, and B cells in the bone marrow and lymph nodes. With both increasing inflammation, this can increase the likelihood of a more severe complication, she added. You can't prevent these health problems related to type 1 diabetes. Hamad says that scientists generally agree that T cells see insulin as the antigen “when the hormone is bound to a site on the APC known as HLA-DQ8.

Common Conditions

Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 SAT: Deiuliis J, Shah Z, Shah N, Needleman B, Mikami D, Narula V, et al. In the UK, around 90% of all adults with diabetes have type 2. Typically a cold or flu will raise insulin needs due to the stress it causes in the body. “Our objective is to interrupt this autoimmune process. The team made another unexpected discovery when analyzing the genomes of DE cells extracted from three unrelated people who all had type 1 diabetes.

Deep sleep can energize your immune system, which is why it is important to sleep for several hours each night. One variant of this molecule, known as HLA-DQ8, is thought to present insulin to T cells in such a way that stimulates them to attack the hormone. Results are expected this year. Suppressed immune system, this is something you'll want to point out to your doctor, to find out if an underlying health issue is to blame. First the investigators compared the mass spectra for the dicarbonyl-exposed hBD-2 with untreated hBD-2.

Sounds so simple – but this helps to really flush things out of the system. Bariatric surgery and prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality in morbid obesity: Colorized scanning electron micrographs of B and T lymphocytes (left, right) shown with a fluorescent microscopy image of the newly discovered DE cell, also called the X cell to denote its crossover nature between B cells and T cells (center). Paquot N, Castillo MJ, Lefebvre PJ, Scheen AJ. Deficiency of this cytokine has been shown in several studies to lead to recurrent infections, while the addition of NAC or L-GSH restored the IL-12 and IFN-γ, which in turn enhanced mycobacterial killing [ 44 56 ]. People also might lose weight even though they're eating more than usual. Relatively few transplants are done because of the short supply of islets, the need for immunosuppression, and the expense.

In addition, there have been studies on transgenic mice with respect to the proliferation and function of components of immune system.

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People with type 1 diabetes need lifelong treatments of daily insulin injections to manage their condition that still leave them at risk of long-term complications. It is also important to consider that β cell death and destruction lead to a relevant consequence on the perspective of “self” recognition: ” “However,” he adds, “our experiments indicate that it is a weak binding and not likely to trigger the strong immune reaction that leads to type 1 diabetes. Similarly, both antibody-mediated and contact-dependent mechanisms have been proposed in relation to B cell imbalance and loss of insulin sensitivity. Add selenium to your diet with sunflower seeds, brown rice, and chicken. The immune cells are called lymphocytes, a type of white blood cells. The best immune boosting supplements, there is still much about the immune system that researchers have to discover. A more recent line of research has started to focus on low-grade inflammation (LGI) as a pervasive feature of T2D, accompanying the development and the progression of the disease, as well as the genesis of complications (5).

However, he’s yet to be convinced about the cells’ role in driving type 1 diabetes: In each of these diseases IFNγ-activated macrophages are present at the sites of inflammation. Further research will help confirm the cell's actions and maybe even provide insight into potential early treatments for these debilitating immune conditions. ” He explains that not only did they find the so-called X cell, but that they also found “strong evidence for it being a major driver of the autoimmune response believed to cause type 1 diabetes. Snack on healthy, high fiber, whole grain and proteins.

Read on to learn more about the research that’s being done and the implications it may have on the treatment and prevention of type 2 diabetes. Lee and Gerald Brandacher of the Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine. After the dust settles, some of those B cells can stick around to serve as a reminder in case the threat returns. Hormones, such as adrenaline also play a role in reducing the body’s immune response. So far, participants in the trial have gone 18 months without insulin therapy following the procedure, on average. (8%) being GADA positive, and that, at diagnosis, these patients are usually non-insulin requiring and do not show categorically distinct clinical features from autoantibody-negative T2D patients (25). We answered them. Improve your immune health and fend off diabetes with these delicious foods.

How Are We Using Stem Cells To Understand Diabetes?

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ PTPN2: These refined sugars make you work harder to control BG levels and they also make your body work harder to process them since there isn’t a lot of good stuff left in them for the body to use. “I’m struggling with this to see the connection to type 1 diabetes in mechanistic terms,” he says. Differently, Helios, mainly associated to thymus-derived Treg cells, was significantly lowered in human VAT of all obese subjects irrespective of their IR. Add turmeric to your cooking which can reduce oxidative damage and inflammation. Consider taking Omega-3 supplements which can help lower systemic inflammation, decrease heart disease and may even decrease stress and anxiety levels.

Other natural antibiotics include: 8% in Japan (Eihme Study, n = 4,980) (26) to 10% in Norway (HUNT Study, n = 1,134) (27). Since 1999, several hundred people with type 1 diabetes have received islet transplants. The effects of salsalate on glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: This may include the avoidance of spermicides and douches. This hypothesis will be tested in a first-of-its-kind, FDA-approved clinical trial involving a combination of agents that target the key immune pathways involved in type 1 diabetes.

It appears that high blood sugar unleashes destructive molecules that interfere with the body's natural infection-control defenses. Two weeks later, the patients received infusions of their own stem cells into their bloodstream via the jugular vein, which re-established their immune systems. “You would still be dependent on insulin and glucose measurement, and even the best closed loops would come with a risk of hypoglycemia,” said Jacob Sten Petersen, Corporate Vice President and Head of Stem Cell R&D at Novo Nordisk.

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What about physical activity? Pick up active yogurt cultures or a tablet from the pharmacy if you don’t particularly like yogurt. CD8+ T cells are essential for the adaptive immune response against infections by secreting cytokines, such as IFN-γ and TNF-α. This is not an indication of a security issue such as a virus or attack. Also, a putative beneficial, transient effect of selected inflammatory molecules on glucose homeostasis has been proposed (163). Mango & sweet potato immune booster acai smoothie recipe, exercise for 30 minutes every day, we love taking a walk outside and getting some fresh air! Scientists and dieticians are learning more about how to help people lose weight ans stay healthy. They also found that Th1/Th2 ratio was an independent predictor of VEGF levels in T2DM patients [30].

Diabetes and the Brain

Obesity and susceptibility to autoimmune diseases. It may also be helpful to count calories. B cells make antibodies against a range of different protein combinations and shapes, but normally do not make antibodies against self proteins. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. Called the x-ld peptide, the protein could replace insulin and bind so tightly to DQ8 that it can elicit a CD4 T-cell response 10,000 times stronger, the team found, using computer simulations by Ruhong Zhou and his team at the IBM Thomas J. 15 foods that boost the immune system, “When you're under chronic stress or anxiety, your body produces stress hormones that suppress your immune system,” Moyad says. 49 This conclusion directly contradicts work demonstrating CD8+ T-cells-induced macrophage recruitment to adipose tissue52 and that lymphocytes infiltrate expanding adipose tissue before macrophage infiltration.

As autoimmune diseases are directly caused by the immune system, immunotherapies have started being investigated as an approach to treat a number of different autoimmune conditions, among them type 1 diabetes. Other infections include fungal infections such as Candida, and viral infections. In particular, the peripheral induced Treg cell number was reduced and Treg cells seemed more prone to cell death, since they showed a decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio (128). Vitamin b12 shots in reno lake tahoe carson city nv. Two experts in type 1 diabetes said the approach holds real promise.

Quit Bad Habits and amp up your cleaning routine

If you are trying to lose weight, increasing your activity to increase your lean muscle mass and burn more calories will help along with reducing portion sizes and carbohydrates. We have performed preliminary studies and have found that deficiency of one of the complement proteins, complement factor 5 (C5) results in diabetes. Usually, specific human immune cells are responsive and attracted by hBD-2. Macrophages in adipose tissue were considered as final effector cells, which regulate adipose tissue inflammation [81]. The eyes may feel irritated or look like they're staring.

There are multiple types of T cells, each of which have specific combinations of TCRs, and thus have a distinct function in cell-mediated immunity.

Don’t skip your meals and test your blood sugars as often as your doctor tells you to. Type 2 diabetes mellitus Tcons: Risk of infection in type 1 and type 2 diabetes compared with the general population: Conversely, the wrong foods can be unhealthy and cause our blood sugar levels to rise which ends up decreasing our immunity. Studies focused on pro-inflammatory functions of CD8+ T cells in DIO show these cells infiltrate adipose tissue and produce chemotactic cytokines such as monocyte chemotactic proteins 1 and 3. Side effects of alcohol on your immune system, hIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) is a virus spread through certain bodily fluids that attacks the body’s immune system, specifically CD4 cells, which help the immune system fight off infections. Insulin helps people use sugar in their bloodstreams for energy. Alcohol, as said, can affect our quality of sleep, but it can also sabotage our diabetes management.

During the progression of T2DM, levels of mRNA and protein of IL-2 and TNF-α in diabetic retinopathy (DR) patients were dramatically higher compared with those of the healthy control group [29]. ” However, he cautions that their findings are not enough to prove that the hybrid cell directly causes type 1 diabetes. It was reported that there was decreased frequency of iNKT cells in VAT and peripheral blood of obese patients [64]. B cells can also exert detrimental effects systemically through the production of pathogenic IgG antibodies (73).

Ying W, Wollam J, Ofrecio JM, Bandyopadhyay G, El Ouarrat D, Lee YS, et al.

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In people with type 1 diabetes, this develops when the pancreas does not make enough insulin, which is the hormone that helps cells absorb and use glucose for energy. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 DR: Characterization of regulatory T cells in obese omental adipose tissue in humans. Keep the following questions in mind when discussing any possible infections with your health care providers: Actually, peripherally induced adaptive FoxP3 Treg cells seem to accumulate in the inflammatory adipose microenvironment in obese subjects with overt IR. In patients with type 1 diabetes, the regulatory arm of the immune system is impaired and cannot fend off the attackers. People with diabetes, even those with the condition well managed, are at a higher risk of complications from the flu as well, the CDC says.

If you achieve a Pre-Diabetes or no diabetes A1C level, then you shouldn’t be having low blood sugars to be considered reversed. Are they high? This process is known as chemotaxis. If effective, the treatment could stop the destruction of insulin-producing cells. Treg cells suppress the activities of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cells to improve insulin resistance. A key role of leptin in the control of regulatory T cell proliferation. Hybrid has both T and B cell receptors The hybrid cell that Hamad and his colleagues found is a rare “dual expressor (DE)” cell that expresses working BCRs and TCRs. Is building immunity when you have diabetes possible?


“Early after diagnosis, between 3 to 6 months, it is estimated that around 10% of the insulin-producing cells are still alive and producing insulin. Immunodeficiency, pathway enrichment analysis revealed that also under basal conditions, the inflammatory response of PMs was affected by HFD ( online supplementary figure S3D ). Make sure that you plan regular exercises into your calendar. Kids and teens with type 1 diabetes are at risk for other autoimmune problems, but these aren't actually caused by the diabetes. And the immune response is different or unique in each individual.

It has been associated with increased morbidity and mortality in the 2020 H1N1 influenza A pandemic.


Freeman DW, Noren Hooten N, Eitan E, Green J, Mode NA, Bodogai M, et al. This type of disorder occurs when your body’s natural chemical processes don’t work properly. Diabetic patients show an altered number and function of immune cells, of both innate and acquired immunity. High levels of cytosolic calcium inhibit the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), which is essential for phagocytosis. This loss of balance, or regulation, results in the continued destruction of the target, which in this case are the insulin-producing cells. Relevant knowledge, though, has come from discovering that Treg cells are major sensors of the systemic metabolic state. Immunosuppressant medications One such immunosuppressant medicine is rituximab (Rituxan, MabThera). The description of the pleiotropic, beneficial, anti-inflammatory effects of selected anti-diabetic medications is beyond the scope of this manuscript and it has been largely reviewed elsewhere (5, 6, 139, 141–143).

T cells are able to release molecules to kill targeted cells.